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Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Cyr H, Colclough-Douglas S, Naumova E, Must A. Dairy food consumption and body weight and fatness studied longitudinally over the adolescent period. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1106-13.
PubMed ID: 12917718
Cohort study (longitudinal, prospective)
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Research Design and Implementation Rating:
POSITIVE: See Research Design and Implementation Criteria Checklist below.
To assess the metabolic, dietary, and behavioral factors that predict changes in body composition with growth and development in girls during the adolescent period, the current analysis was undertaken to examine the relation of dairy food intake with relative weight status and percentage body fat.
8 to 12 year old, premenarcheal, and nonobese based on tripceps skinfold thickness <=85th percentile for age and sex according to NHANES I.
Participants who left more than 12 items blank on the FFQ, when daily energy intake was less than 500 kcal or greater than 5000 kcal as calculated from the FFQ, or had fewer than 3 annual visits.
Description of Study Protocol:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Growth and Development Study: all 4th and 5th grade girls in Cambridge, MA, public schools were invited to participate with additional subjects recruited from the MIT summer day camp and through contact with friends and siblings of subjects between 1990 and 1993.
Self-administered Willett semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (116 items, asked about the past year) at each annual follow-up visit. Height, weight, and percent body fat were assessed as well as physical activity and inactivity.
Data Collection Summary:
Timing of Measurements
Girls were followed annually until 4 years after menarche (duration of the study not indicated).
Dairy food intake (daily servings of dairy foods, percentage of daily kilocalories from dairy foods, dairy calcium (mg) from dairy food, percentage of calories from low-fat dairy foods and percentage of calories from high-fat dairy food)
Age, physical activity index, inactivity index, parental overweight, race/ethnicity, daily servings of fruits and vegetables, percentage of daily calories from sugar-sweetened soda, percentage of daily calories from snack foods, percentage of daily calories from protein, percentage of daily calories from carbohydrates, and percentage of daily calories from fat.
Description of Actual Data Sample:
Initial N: 196 girls
Attrition (final N): 172 girls
Age: 8-12 year old
Ethnicity: White (74%), African American (26%)
Location: Cambridge and Somerville, MA
Summary of Results:
Number of dairy food servings was 3.1±1.6 and the percentage of daily kcal from dairy foods was 19.9%±9.2%. Daily servings of dairy foods and calcium from dairy foods decreased significantly between baseline and study exit.
After adjusting for covariates, no statistically significant relationship was found between dairy food consumption (servings per day, percent of daily calories, or calcium from dairy foods) and BMI z-score. No significant relation between percentage of calories from low- or full-fat dairy and BMI z-score was observed.
There was no significant relation between daily servings of dairy food or percentage of daily calories from dairy foods and percent body fat. No significant relation between percentage of calories from low- or full-fat dairy and percent body fat was observed.
Avoidance of diary foods due to a possible association with relative body weight is not supported by these findings. We find no evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with BMI z-score or percent body fat during adolescence.
Copyright American Dietetic Association (ADA).