|Nutrition Evidence Library|
Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Gillman MW, Field AE, Colditz GA. Longitudinal study of skipping breakfast and weight change in adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Oct;27(10):1258-66
PubMed ID: 14513075
Cohort study (longitudinal, prospective)
B - Click here for explanation of classification scheme.
Research Design and Implementation Rating:
NEUTRAL: See Research Design and Implementation Criteria Checklist below.
Using data from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), prospectively analyze the relationship between breakfast frequency and subsequent changes in body mass index (BMI).
9-14 year old offspring of Nurses’ Health Study II participants whose mother returned the consent form and who responded with a completed questionnaire.
Definition of weight reference: (CDC BMI standards) below 10th percentile = lean, between 85th and 95th percentiles = at risk of overweight, above 95th percentiles = overweight
Any height that was more than 3 standard deviations (s.d.) beyond the gender-age-specific mean height and any 1 year height change that declined by more than 1 inch or increased by greater than 3 s.d.. Any BMI <12.0 kg/m2 as a biological lower limit and any BMI greater than 3 s.d. above or below the gender-age-specific mean.
Description of Study Protocol:
Parental consent and youth questionnaires were mailed to participants. Longitudinal analyses were restricted to 8128 girls and 6458 boys who were of age 9-17 y upon returning two or more consecutive annual surveys, or 1996 and 1999 surveys.
Data Collection Summary:
Description of Actual Data Sample:
Initial N: 26,765
Attrition (final N): 14,586
Age: 9 to 14 years
Ethnicity: 94.7% White, 0.9% African American, 1.5% Hispanic, 1.5% Asian, 1.4% Other
Location: 50 US states
Duration: 3 years
Summary of Results:
Baseline: 23.3% boys and 17.4% girls were overweight; 7.2% boys and 8.6% girls were very lean. 26.4% boys and 25.3% who never ate breakfast were overweight than those who ate breakfast nearly every day (21.2% boys and 15.8% girls were overweight).
3-year BMI change (1996-1999): Normal weight girls who ate breakfast 1-2 days/week gained more weight than peers who ate daily (0.072 (0.037) kg/m2 than peers who ate daily. Overweight boys and girls who skipped breakfast gained less weight than daily eaters (boys never-eaters: -0.425 (0.234) and 3-4 days/week: -0.139 (0.071); girls who ate 1-2 days/week: -0.114 (0.067) and 3-4 days/week: 0.177 (0.056)).
Self-reported academic performance 1 year later: Boys who never ate breakfast were less likely (RR=0.68; 95% CI: 0.53-0.89) to report a year later that they did well at their schoolwork. Girls who never ate breakfast were less likely (RR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.62-0.86) to report a year later that they did well at their schoolwork.
Data suggests that children who skipped breakfast had lower energy intakes. However, normal weight children who never ate breakfast tended to gain weight. Overweight children who skip breakfast might lose weight, but alternative methods of reducing energy intake are preferred given the well-documented adverse effects of skipping breakfast on academic performance.
Copyright American Dietetic Association (ADA).