|Nutrition Evidence Library|
Search Plan and Results
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Total articles identified to review from electronic databases:
Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means
Summary of Articles Identified to Review
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Total Number of Articles Identified:
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List of Articles Included for Evidence Analysis
List of Excluded Articles with Reason
REVIEWS FOR BACKGROUND/CONTEXT:
Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2005;(170):195-213.
PMID: 16596800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
This is a narrative review. However, in summary, the author makes an important distinction between dietary cholesterol alone and the “eating pattern” associated with high cholesterol intake. In particular, high cholesterol intake is associated with high total and saturated fat, and decreased PUFA and fiber consumption. When cholesterol intake is studied in isolation of these other negative dietary components, as can be done when testing egg consumption, research shows that dietary cholesterol alone has a minimal effect of CDH risk, although lowering dietary cholesterol may reduce CHD risk in genetically susceptible individuals.
Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Jan;9(1):8-12.
PMID: 16340654 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
This is a narrative review that summarizes data based primarily on identified difference between subjects categorized as “hyperresponders” and “hyporesponders” to dietary cholesterol. According to the author, hyporesponders, i.e. individuals who do not exhibit increased serum LDL cholesterol after dietary cholesterol consumption, make up 70% of the US population. The summarized evidence shows that hyperresponders to egg consumption exhibited both increased LDL and HDL cholesterol in response to dietary cholesterol challenge. Furthermore, in both groups, egg consumption increased LDL particle size (less atherogenic) and shifted the LDL pattern from “B” to “A.”
Staprans I, Pan XM, Rapp JH, Feingold KR. The role of dietary oxidized cholesterol and oxidized fatty acids in the development of atherosclerosis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Nov;49(11):1075-82.
PMID: 16270280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Food processing induces lipid oxidation in dairy products, eggs, meat and fish. In this narrative review, the authors summarize reports on dietary oxidized cholesterol, increased chylomicron and chylomicron remnant oxidized cholesterol and increased LDL and HDL oxidized cholesterol in the circulation. The authors hypothesize that dietary oxidized cholesterol contributes to increased circulating lipoprotein oxidized cholesterol which may, in turn, contribute to increase risk of atherosclerosis.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):596S-600S. Review
PMID: 15640512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
This is a narrative, historical review that sites numerous population-based studies that do not show a correlation between dietary cholesterol (in eggs) and serum LDL cholesterol. For example, the NHANES III study, a cross-sectional, population-based study that concluded that: 1) egg consumption was not associated with increased serum cholesterol and 2) egg consumption made and important nutritional contributions to the American diet in terms of micronutrients such as minerals, B vitamins, folate, etc.